The exosome is a critical component of the intercellular communication., playing a vital role in regulating cell function. These small vesicles contain proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs, surrounded by lipid bilayer substances. Most cells in the human body can produce exosomes, released into various body fluids such as urine, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Bladder cancer is the most common tumor in the urinary system, with high recurrence and metastasis rates. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving patient outcomes.