Surgical manipulation has a risk of triggering the shedding of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with malignancies, However, perioperative change of circulating tumor cells in cytoreductive radical prostatectomy (CRP) for patients with oligometastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (omHSPC) has not yet been well documented. This study aimed to assess whether CRP is a safe procedure for patients with omHSPC by monitoring the perioperative change of CTCs and investigating its impact on long-term oncologic outcomes. We have observed a significant decrease between the median CTC counts before and after surgery (6 vs. 4, p = 0.026). Comparing preoperative and postoperative CTC levels, seven patients increased (CTC increase group), one did not change and nineteen decreased (CTC non-increase group). PSA response rates in CTC increase group were lower than those in CTC non-increase group (73.0% vs 99.8%, p = 0.162), and nadir PSA was higher in CTC increase group (0.043 vs 0.003, p = 0.072). The CTC increase was positively correlated with the nadir PSA (r = 0.386, p = 0.047). The median follow-up period was 71.6 months, we found that there was no significant difference in clinical-pathological, operative variables or long-term oncologic outcomes between perioperative CTC increase and non-increase groups. In the entire cohort, the CTC level significantly decreased after surgery. There was no significant differences in long-term oncologic outcomes between the CTC increase and non-increase groups, implying that CRP potentially represents a safe procedure for the treatment of patients with omHSPC. The results need to be confirmed in a prospective large-scale clinical trial.